AAPI Media Directory & Map

Visualizations

December 2023

More Than a Century

While the majority of the outlets in the directory were established within the past four decades, four outlets first began publishing in the early 1900s:

  • North American Post (1902), located in Seattle, WA, serving the Japanese American community
  • Rafu Shimpo (1903), located in Los Angeles, CA, serving the Japanese American community
  • Asbarez (1908), located in Los Angeles, CA, serving the Armenian American community
  • Hawaii Hochi (1912), located in Honolulu, HI, serving the Japanese American community

Overall, the median founding year of the outlets is undefined, or NaN years ago.

This chart, which shows the year or approximate year each outlet began publishing or broadcasting, is categorized by geographic region, based on U.S. Census divisions. Not all outlets in the directory have a founding year that could be identified.

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To browse and learn more about AAPI outlets from previous decades and centuries that no longer publish, visit Chronicling America, the Library of Congress’ database of historic newspapers.

Across the Country

Home to two of the oldest outlets in the directory, California also boasts the largest number of AAPI-serving outlets at undefined. In the lighter shades on the map, New York follows with undefined outlets and Washington state with undefined. Together, these three states account for undefined% of the outlets in the directory. Meanwhile, 11 states have an outlet count in the double digits while 15 states have no outlets serving AAPI audiences, as of 2023.

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A look at the AAPI Media Map shows that the AAPI news ecosystem primarily serves urban news audiences. Even in states that have dozens of outlets, including in those with growing rural AAPI communities, most AAPI community media outlets tend to be located in or near a major city, and almost all are in a metropolitan area. Seen in the bubble chart below, under the selection of , only two outlets across the 50 U.S. states are based outside of a metropolitan area, as of 2023: Kokoro Kara Magazine in Powell, Wyoming, and the Mississippi Delta Chinese Heritage Museum Newsletter in Greenville, both of which are published by organizations dedicated to commemorating specific chapters of isolation, displacement or oppression in their communities’ histories.

Outside of the major cities, more than 200 municipalities are home to at least one AAPI-serving publication or broadcast station. From New York City to Fayetteville, North Carolina to Maui, Hawaii, and dozens of others, these locations illustrate the broad geographic spectrum of where AAPI outlets operate. While many of these outlets were founded in and for residents living in major and historically significant AAPI immigrant hubs, the digital era can and often does afford them an audience, and even staff, not bound by location. As a growing number of legacy newspapers beloved in historic AAPI immigrant enclaves pivot to digital formats, these outlets can serve loyal customers as well as growing suburban and exurban audiences outside of historic Chinatowns, Koreatowns, Little Indias, Little Saigons, Little Tokyos, and more.

From the total undefined municipalities large and small, AAPI media serve 0 U.S. metropolitan areas, which can be viewed by selecting the second button below, labeled . For reference, go to a map of all metropolitan areas in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. (Note that the AAPI Media Map shows only metro areas with one or more AAPI outlets from the directory.) The table includes an additional column for the Asian American, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander population in each metro area. Along with the number of AAPI outlets, this column can help pinpoint areas with fewer or more outlets than expected based on the local population.

All undefined Municipalities

Across the U.S., American Samoa, Guam, Palau and Samoa, undefined cities and towns are home to at least one AAPI-serving outlet. In the visualization, hover over a circle to see a municipality and its outlet count. The accompanying table displays the same information in list form.

U.S. municipalities within a metro area
U.S. municipalities not within a metro area
Municipalities outside the 50 states
U.S. municipalities not within a metro area, marked in table
Skip interactive bubble chart

The directory also includes outlets in NaN international locations. They serve diasporic AAPI communities in the U.S. but are not included in the charts above.

The Many Dimensions of AAPI Media

The following bubble charts and tables further underscore the diversity of the AAPI media ecosystem, this time through the lenses of communities, languages and formats.

Community

The directory includes two community-related fields:

  • Primary community served: The main 1-2 communities covered by an outlet. On the map, the Community filter searches by this field.
  • Community served: All communities covered by the outlet, including those in primary community served. These two fields may have the same entry if the outlet does not serve additional or broader regional communities.

The visualization focuses on the undefined primary communities. Within the list, you can find different types of communities:

  • Individual communities, such as Palauan, Arab American, Korean American
  • Pan-Asian and cross-geographic, regional communities such as Pacific Islander, South Asian American, or AAPI

Language

In the directory, an outlet may have one or more languages listed under the Language field. When multiple are present, a language may have varying degrees of prominence in the outlet – for example, while English is the most common language in the directory, the extent of English-language content varies, from outlets published entirely in English to outlets with equally distributed bilingual content, and outlets with limited or minimal English-language content.

See a breakdown of the undefined languages in the bubble chart and table.

Format

The digital age not only expands the geographic boundaries of audience reach, it also opens up new and diverse platforms for news delivery. The outlets in the directory present their content in an overall total of undefined formats. The standard and traditional media types – website, newspaper, TV, radio and magazine – dominate but not far behind, in terms of outlet count, are podcasts (undefined) and messaging apps (NaN). A number of outlets post extensively on social media or on their own proprietary apps, as well, but the directory has limited its list of media formats to those with the outlet’s most prominent platforms.

As with the community category, format has two fields in the directory:

  • Primary format: The main format used by an outlet to present its news content. On the map, the Format filter searches using this field.
  • Format: All formats used by the outlet, including those in the primary format field and any additional ones used. This field may have the same entry as primary format if the outlet does not use any additional formats.

The colors in the bubble chart distinguish between the formats used by one or more outlets in the directory as a primary platform (the outlet count also includes outlets that use the format as a secondary or additional platform); and formats used only as a secondary or additional medium. Could one of those platforms one day emerge as a common primary format?

In early 2024, the Asian Media Initiative will release a report on the state of AAPI community media. If you would like more details about the report, or have questions or feedback about the directory and map, please contact AMI Director Kavitha Rajagopalan at kavitha.rajagopalan@journalism.cuny.edu.

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Go to the AAPI Media Directory or Map


Visualizations produced by Jennifer Cheng